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11-INCOTERMS 2010

The Incoterms® rules are the regulations that define responsibilities of buyers and sellers operating in the international trade system. They are the authoritative rules for determining how costs and risks are allocated to the parties. Incoterms rules are regularly incorporated into contracts for the sale of goods worldwide and have become part of the daily language of trade.

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) has launched Incoterms® 2020 set that contains the rules for use of the 11 Incoterms® trade terms. It takes into account the latest developments in commercial practice, and updates the rules to make them more accessible and easier to use.

The new rules will enter into force on 1 January 2020. As of this date, all sales contracts should make reference to the Incoterms® 2020 rules as the latest version of the Incoterms rules.

RULES FOR ANY MODE OR MODES OF TRANSPORT (7 for any mode of transport)

  • • EXW | Ex Works
    Seller delivers by making goods available to buyer.
  • • FCA | Free Carrier
    Seller delivers goods to carrier or buyer-appointed agent.
  • • CPT | Carriage Paid To
    Seller delivers goods to carrier or buyer-appointed agent and pays for international carriage.
  • • CIP | Carriage and Insurance Paid To
    Seller delivers goods to carrier or buyer-appointed agent and pays for international carriage and insurance.
  • • DAP | Delivered at Place
    Seller delivers by making goods available to buyer at a named place.
  • • DPU | Delivered at Place Unloaded
    New to 2020, formerly called Delivered at Terminal (DAT). Seller delivers by making goods available to buyer by unloading goods at a named place.
  • • DDP | Delivered Duty Paid
    Seller delivers by placing goods at buyer’s disposal, cleared for import with duties paid and ready for unloading at named place.
  • RULES FOR SEA AND INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT (4 for ocean and inland waterway transport)

  • • FAS | Free Alongside Ship
    Seller delivers by placing goods alongside a vessel nominated by buyer.
  • • FOB | Free On Board
    Seller delivers when goods are on board a vessel nominated by buyer.
  • • CFR | Cost and Freight
    Seller pays for costs and freight to named destination and delivers when goods are on board a vessel nominated by buyer.
  • • CIF | Cost Insurance and Freight
    Seller pays for costs, freight, and insurance to named destination and delivers when goods are on board a vessel nominated by buyer.



  • Differences between Incoterms® 2010 and 2020:

  • • The Incoterms® FCA (Free Carrier) now provides the additional option to make an on-board notation on the Bill of Lading prior loading of the goods on a vessel.
  • • The costs now appear centralized in A9/B9 of each Incoterms® rule.
  • • CIP now requires at least an insurance with the minimum cover of the Institute Cargo Clause (A) (All risk, subject to itemized exclusions).
  • • CIF requires at least an insurance with the minimum cover of the Institute Cargo Clause (C) (Number of listed risks, subject to itemized exclusions).
  • • The Incoterms® rules Free Carrier (FCA), Delivered at Place (DAP), Delivered at Place Unloaded (DPU) and Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) now take into account that the goods may be carried without any third-party carrier being engaged, namely by using its own means of transportation.
  • • The rule Delivered at Terminal (DAT) has been changed to Delivered at Place Unloaded (DPU) to clarify that the place of destination could be any place and not only a “terminal”.
  • • The Incoterms® 2020 now explicitly shifts the responsibility of security-related requirements and ancillary costs to the seller.
  • Useful information

    The Incoterms® do not constitute a complete contract of sale, but rather become a part of it. For its application, the following structure should be used: “[The chosen Incoterm® rule] [Named port, place or point] Incoterms® 2020”

    Example: “CIF Shanghai Incoterms® 2020” or “DAP 10 Downing Street, London, Great Britain Incoterms® 2020“

    If there is no year stated in the Incoterms® then the following applies:
    until December 31st 2019 the Incoterms® 2010 apply.
    from January 1st 2020 the Incoterms® 2020 apply.

    If a different year is stated, e. g. Incoterms® 1980, then respective terms apply.

    Remark: Based on ICC website; for detailed explanation reference is made to International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) publication INCOTERMS® 2020. This document is provided to our customers for informational purposes only. Please refer to the official text of the ICC for a full and detailed description of all rights and liabilities arising from the use of the aforementioned Incoterms® (https://iccwbo.org).